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Areas of expertise

Geothermal energy , Heat Transfer , Hydrogeology

Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre

490 de la Couronne Street
Québec City, Quebec  G1K 9A9

See the research centre

Research interests

  • Geothermal heat pump systems
  • Underground energy storage (thermal, compress air, hydrogen)
  • Thermal response tests
  • Geothermal energy in northern and remote regions
  • Geothermal ressources in mining environments
  • Deep geothermal ressources of petrothermal and hydrothermal systems
  • Geothermal ressources of sedimentary basins
  • Characterization of the subsurface thermal properties
  • Modeling of heat transfer processes
  • Sutdy of heat transfer processes applied to Earth Sciences  (geodynamics, environmental hydrogeology, cold region geotechnics)


Futur students

I invite students interested in these research themes and wishing to pursue graduate studies to contact me. Occasionally, I supervise international students who have been awarded international development scholarships to study the geothermal potential of their home country.


Félix-Antoine Comeau

Research Officer

Fiona Chapman


Milad Fakhari


Violaine Gascuel


Abdek Hassan Aden


Claude Hugo Koubikana Pambou


Benyamin Shariatinik

PhD – cosupervision

Antoine Bachand


Madeleine Chapelet


Samuel Lacombe


Hubert Langevin


Cynthia Lee

Master – cosupervision

Victoria Lee


Xavier Léveillée-Dallaire


David Alejandro Moreno Rendon


Dan David Ngoyo Mandemvo


Maria José Oviedo Valencia


Mafalda Alexa Marques Miranda

Postdoctoral fellow

Oleksandra Pedchenko

Postdoctoral fellow

Florian Maranghi


University education

  • B.Sc., Geology, McGill University
  • M.Sc., Hydrogeology, Laval University
  • Ph.D., Hydrogeology, Laval University
  • Postdoctoral research, Thermal Engineering, École de technologie supérieure (ÉTS)
  • Postdoctoral research, Geothermal Energy, INRS



Interested by heat transfer applied to Earth Sciences, Professor Raymond is a hydrogeologist conducting research on geothermal energy. His current projects involve very low to high temperature resources associated to both geothermal heat pumps and power production, spanned over four continents, from the arctic to the tropics, helping to develop sustainable energy solutions for growing needs of our society. Awardee of the Canadian Geotechnical Society, chair holder of the Institut nordique du Québec and granted by UNESCO, Professor Raymond leads the Laboratoire ouvert de géothermie to characterize thermophyscial properties of rocks essential to model geothermal systems of all kinds. The main objective of his projects, done in collaboration with geothermal designers, developers, manufacturers and regulators, is to improve the efficiency and profitability of systems by providing scientific and social innovations.

Current projects

  • Geothermal potential of closed mines in southern Quebec (Funding: FQRNT – Sustainable development of the mining sector)
  • CommunoSerre – Socio-technological integration of community and solidarity greenhouses in disadvantaged urban areas affected by the pandemic (Funding: INRS funds for COVID research)
  • Use of heat to quantify flows in heterogeneous granular aquifers: application to solutes and energy transport (Funding: FRQNT – Samuel de Champlain)
  • Analysis of heat transfer processes in environments with geothermal potential (Funding: NSERC – Discovery grant)
  • Geothermal resources for energy transition: direct uses and renewable base-load power around the globe (Funding: UNESCO – International Geosciences Programme)
  • Multimedia for sharing northern research (Funding: FRQ – Dialogue)
  • Thermal storage as a solution to the challenges of renewable energy development in the Arctic (Funding: New Frontiers in Research Fund – Exploration stream)
  • Socio-technological solutions to extend the use of renewable energy sources from Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik to other parts of Nunavik (Funding: Institut nordique du Québec – INQ-Sentinel North call for proposals)
  • Aquifers, a natural infrastructure for energy-efficient cooling (Funding: NSERC – Advancing Climate Change Science in Canada)
  • Prototype development to conduct oscillatory heat injection tests and evaluate the subsurface heat capacity when designing geothermal heat pump systems (Funding: NSERC – Idea to Innovation Grant)
  • Use of geophysical measurements of multiple boreholes over time to optimize geothermal systems (collaboration on a research project led by Erwan Gloaguen at INRS) (Funding: FRQNT – Team research project)

INQ Northern Geothermal Potential Research Chair

Hydrocarbons transported by truck, train, and boat are the main source of heat and electricity in the North, a situation that comes at a high financial and environmental cost. Geothermal technologies offer an alternative that can be used to diversify energy sources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This could give rise to new business activities of great benefit to northern communities, such as greenhouse operations for producing fruits and vegetables locally. However, the extent of geothermal resources in the North is unclear. The region is vast and the thermohydraulic properties that characterize its surface and deep resources vary greatly. The Research Chair aims to demonstrate the potential of northern geothermal resources so that this renewable energy source can be developed.


Completed projects

  • Creation of the Open Geothermal Laboratory (Funding: CFI – John R. Evans Leaders Fund)
  • Geothermal characterization of the sedimentary basin of Québec’s St. Lawrence Lowlands:
    First step toward a demonstration project (Funding: FRQNT – Team research project)
  • Runoff potential of basement geothermal reservoirs (Funding: FRQNT – New university researchers)
  • Potential of geothermal resources and technologies for powering northern mines (Funding: FQRNT – Sustainable development of the mining sector)
  • Geothermal response test with a low-power source(collaboration on a project led by Louis Lamarche at ETS) (Funding: NSERC – Idea to Innovation Grant) ► Read on
  • Deep geothermal potential in Quebec (collaboration on a project led by Michel Malo at INRS) (Funding: FRQNT – Strategic initiatives for innovation)  Read on

Research groups


Scientific activities

Board member

Technical expert

  • Geoscience BC, Geothermal Technical Advisory Committee
  • Binational (Canada-U.S.A.) standard for the installation of earth energy systems with the Canadian Standards Association

Active member of professional organizations

Graduates and past postdoctoral fellows

Rajaobelison, Miora Mirah (Ph.D. 2022)
Miranda, Mafalda Alexandra (Ph.D. 2021)
Giordano, Nicolò (postdoctoral fellowship 2021)
Alavaredo, Edgardo Jose  (M.Sc.  2020)
Jaziri, Nehed  (M.Sc.  2019)
Kanzari, Inès  (M.Sc.  2019)
Nasr, Maher  (M.Sc.  2016)


Winter (offered every year depending on demand)

GEO1504 Heat Transfer Applied to Earth Sciences: Course outline (PDF; in French)


Fall (offered every 2 years)

GEO1502 Subsurface Characterization Techniques: Course outline (PDF; in French)


Raymond, Jasmin, Langevin, Hubert, Comeau, Félix-Antoine & Malo, Michel (2022). Temperature dependence of rock salt thermal conductivity: Implications for geothermal exploration. Renew. Energ., 184: 26-35.
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2021.11.080

Abesser, Corinna; Schincariol, Robert A.; Raymond, Jasmin; Gil, Alejandro Garcia; Drysdale, Ronan; Piatek, Alex; Giordano, Nicolò; Jaziri, Nehed & Molson, John (2021). Case studies of geothermal system response to perturbations in groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Groundwater, ONLINE.
DOI: 10.1111/gwat.13086

Balzan Alzate, D. S.; López Sánchez, Idalia Jacqueline; Blessent, Daniela; Raymond, Jasmin; Dezayes, Chrystel; Portela, J. P.; Restrepo, E. Ramirez; Rendon, D. Moreno; Malo, Michel; Goderniaux, Pascal; Daniele, L. & Le Borgne, Tanguy (2021). An online survey to explore the awareness and acceptance of geothermal energy among an educated segment of the population in five European and American countries. Geoth. Energ., 9 (1): Art. 9.
DOI: 10.1186/s40517-021-00188-x

Giordano, Nicolò, Lamarche, Louis & Raymond, Jasmin (2021). Evaluation of subsurface heat capacity through oscillatory thermal response tests. Energies, 14 (18): Art. 5791.
DOI : 10.3390/en14185791

Hassan Aden, Abdek; Raymond, Jasmin; Giroux, Bernard & Sanjuan, Bernard (2021). New insights into hydrothermal fluid circulation affected by regional groundwater flow in the Asal Rift, Republic of Djibouti. Energies, 14 (4): Art. 1166.

Hickson, C.J., Miranda, M., Huang, K., Witter, J., Unsworth, M., Raymond, J., Poux, B., Marcia, K., Grasby, S., Fraser, T., Ebell, J., & Dusseault, M., 2021. Geothermal Energy in Canada – Moving Forward in 2021. GRC Transactions, 45.

Miranda, Mafalda Alexandra; Velez Marquez, Maria Isabel; Raymond, Jasmin & Dezayes, Chrystel (2021). A numerical approach to infer terrestrial heat flux from shallow temperature profiles in remote northern regions. Geothermics, 93: Art. 102064.
DOI: 10.1016/j.geothermics.2021.102064

Rajaobelison, Miora Mirah, Raymond, Jasmin, Malo, Michel, Dezayes, Chrystel & Larmagnat, Stéphanie (2021). Assessment of petrophysical rock properties in North Madagascar: Implications for geothermal resource exploration. Nat. Resour. Res., 30 (5): 3261-3287.
DOI: 10.1007/s11053-021-09875-9

Schincariol, Robert A. & Raymond, Jasmin (2021). Borehole heat exchangers – Addressing the application Gap with Groundwater Science. Groundwater, ONLINE.
DOI: 10.1111/gwat.13100

Somma, Renato, Blessent, Daniela, Raymond, Jasmin, Constance, Madeline, Cotton, Lucy, De Natal, Giuseppe, Fedele, Alessandro, Jurado, Maria Jose, Marcia, Kristen, Miranda, Mafalda Alexandra, Troise, Claudia & Wiersberg, Thomas (2021). Review of recent drilling projects in unconventional geothermal resources at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Cornubian Batholith and Williston sedimentary basin. Energies, 14 (11): Art. 3306.
DOI: 10.3390/en14113306

Zinsalo, Joël M., Lamarche, Louis & Raymond, Jasmin (2021). Design and optimization of multiple wells layout for electricity generation in a multi-fracture enhanced geothermal system. Sustain. Energy Technol. Assess., 47: Art. 101365.
DOI: 10.1016/j.seta.2021.101365

Zinsalo, Joël M., Lamarche, Louis & Raymond, Jasmin (2021). Sustainable electricity generation from an Enhanced Geothermal System considering reservoir heterogeneity and water losses with a discrete fractures model. Appl. Therm. Eng., 192: Art. 116886.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2021.116886

Bédard, Karine; Comeau, Félix-Antoine; Raymond, Jasmin; Gloaguen, Erwan; Malo, Michel & Richard, Marc-André (2020). Deep geothermal resource assessment of the St. Lawrence Lowlands sedimentary basin (Québec) based on 3D regional geological modelling. Geomach. Geophpys. Geo-energ. Geo-resour., 6: Art. 46.
DOI: 10.1007/s40948-020-00170-0

Gascuel, Violaine; Bédard, Karine; Comeau, Félix-Antoine; Raymond, Jasmin & Malo, Michel (2020). Geothermal resource assessment of remote sedimentary basins with sparse data: lessons learned from Anticosti Island, Canada. Geoth. Energ., 8 (1): Art. 3.
DOI: 10.1186/s40517-020-0156-1

Gunawan, Evelyn; Giordano, Nicolo; Jensson, P.; Newson, J. & Raymond, Jasmin (2020). Alternative heating systems for northern remote communities: Techno-economic analysis of ground-coupled heat pumps in Kuujjuaq, Nunavik, Canada. Renew. Energ., 147, part 1: 1540-1553.
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.09.039

Madaeni, Fatemehalsadat; Lhissou, Rachid; Chokmani, Karem; Raymond, Sébastien & Gauthier, Yves (2020). Ice jam formation, breakup and prediction methods based on hydroclimatic data using artificial intelligence: A review. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 174: Art. 103032.
DOI: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2020.103032

Miranda, Mafalda Alexandra; Giordano, Nicolo; Raymond, Jasmin; Pereira, A. J. S. C. & Dezayes, Chrystel (2020). Thermophysical properties of surficial rocks: a tool to characterize geothermal resources of remote northern regions. Geoth. Energ., 8: Art. 4.
DOI: 10.1186/s40517-020-0159-y

Miranda, Mafalda Alexandra; Raymond, Jasmin & Dezayes, Chrystel (2020). Uncertainty and risk evaluation of deep geothermal energy source for heat production and electricity generation in remote northern regions. Energies, 13 (16): Art. 4221.
DOI: 10.3390/en13164221

Rajaobelison, Miora Mirah; Raymond, Jasmin; Malo, Michel & Dezayes, Chrystel (2020). Classification of geothermal systems in Madagascar. Geoth. Energ., 8 (1): Art. 22.
DOI: 10.1186/s40517-020-00176-7

Zinsalo, Joël M.; Lamarche, Louis & Raymond, Jasmin (2020). Injection strategies in an enhanced geothermal system based on discrete fractures model. Appl. Therm. Eng., 169: Art. 114812.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.114812

Blessent, Daniela; Raymond, Jasmin; López-Sánchez, Jacqueline; Dezayes, Chrystel; Malo, Michel; Goderniaux, Pascal; Daniele, Linda & Le Borgne, Tanguy (2019). The successful experience of IGCP636 project “Unifying international research forces to unlock and strengthen geothermal exploitation of the Americas and Europe”Episodes, 42 (3): 253-258.
DOI: 10.18814/epiiugs/2019/019014

Giordano, Nicolo & Raymond, Jasmin (2019). Alternative and sustainable heat production for drinking water needs in a subarctic climate (Nunavik, Canada): Borehole thermal energy storage to reduce fossil fuel dependency in off-grid communitiesAppl. Ener., 252: Art. 113463.
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113463

Jaziri, Nehed; Raymond, Jasmin; Giordano, Nicolo & Molson, John (2019). Long-term temperature evaluation of a ground-coupled heat pump system subject to groundwater flowEnergies, 13 (1): Art. 96.
DOI: 10.3390/en13010096

Koubikana Pambou, Claude Hugo; Raymond, Jasmin & Lamarche, Louis (2019). Improving thermal response tests with wireline temperature logs to evaluate ground thermal conductivity profiles and groundwater fluxesHeat Mass Transfer, 55 (6): 1829-1843.
DOI: 10.1007/s00231-018-2532-y

Larmagnat, Stéphanie; Des Roches, Mathieu; Daigle, Louis-Frédéric; Francus, Pierre; Lavoie, Denis; Raymond, Jasmin; Malo, Michel & Aubiès-Trouilh, Alexandre (2019). Continuous porosity characterization: Metric-scale intervals in heterogeneous sedimentary rocks using medical CT-scannerMar. Petrol. Geol., 109: 361-380.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.04.039

Raymond, Jasmin; Bédard, Karine; Comeau, Félix-Antoine; Gloaguen, Erwan; Comeau, Guillaume; Millet, Emmanuelle & Foy, Stefan (2019). A workflow for bedrock thermal conductivity map to help designing geothermal heat pump systems in the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, CanadaSci. Tech. Built Environ., 25 (8): 963-979.
DOI: 10.1080/23744731.2019.1642077

Velez Marquez, Maria Isabel; Raymond, Jasmin; Blessent, Daniela & Philippe, Mikael (2019). Terrestrial heat flow evaluation from thermal response tests combined with temperature profilingPhys. Chem. Earth, Parts A/B/C, 113: 22-30.
DOI: 10.1016/j.pce.2019.07.002

Bédard, Karine; Comeau, Félix-Antoine; Raymond, Jasmin; Malo, Michel & Nasr, Maher (2018). Geothermal characterization of the St. Lawrence lowlands sedimentary basin, Québec, CanadaNat. Resour. Res., 27 (4): 479-502.
DOI: 10.1007/s11053-017-9363-2

Dezayes, Chrystel & Raymond, Jasmin (2018). Les ressources en eau & en énergie souterraines face au changement climatique. Geologues, 198: 76-77.

Lamarche, Louis; Raymond, Jasmin & Koubikana Pambou, Claude Hugo (2018). Evaluation of the internal and borehole resistances during thermal response tests and impact on ground heat exchanger designEnergies, 11 (1): Art. 38.
DOI: 10.3390/en11010038

Malo, M.; Malo, F.; Bédard, K. & Raymond, J. (2018). Public perception regarding deep geothermal energy and social acceptability in the province. In: Manzella, A., Allansdottir, A. & Pellizzone, A., (Eds). Geothermal Energy and Society. pp. 91-103. Springer.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-78286-7

Malo, Michel; Comeau, Félix-Antoine; Bédard, Karine & Raymond, Jasmin (2018). Portrait de l’énergie géothermique au Québec. Geologues, 198: 61-64.

Moreno, David; López Sánchez, Idalia Jacqueline; Blessent, Daniela & Raymond, Jasmin (2018). Fault characterization and heat-transfer modeling to the Northwest of Nevado del Ruiz VolcanoJ. South Am. Earth Sci., 88: 50-63.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jsames.2018.08.008

Nasr, Maher; Raymond, Jasmin; Malo, Michel & Gloaguen, Erwan (2018). Geothermal potential of the St. Lawrence Lowlands sedimentary basin from well log analysisGeothermics, 75: 68-80.
DOI: 10.1016/j.geothermics.2018.04.004

Raymond, Jasmin (2018). Colloquium 2016: Assessment of the subsurface thermal conductivity for geothermal applicationsCan. Geotech. J. / Rev. Can. Géotech., 55 (9): 1209-1229.
DOI: 10.1139/cgj-2017-0447

Velez Marquez, Maria Isabel; Blessent, Daniela; Córdoba, Sebastián; López Sánchez, Idalia Jacqueline; Raymond, Jasmin & Parra-Palacio, Eduardo (2018). Geothermal potential assessment of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano based on rock thermal conductivity measurements and numerical modeling of heat transferJ. South Am. Earth Sci., 81 (Janvier): 153-164.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jsames.2017.11.011

Velez Marquez, Maria Isabel; Raymond, Jasmin; Blessent, Daniela; Philippe, Mikael; Simon, Nataline; Bour, Olivier & Lamarche, Louis (2018). Distributed thermal response tests using a heating cable and fiber optic temperature sensingEnergies, 11 (11): Art. 3059.
DOI: 10.3390/en11113059

Belzile, Patrick; Comeau, Félix-Antoine; Raymond, Jasmin; Lamarche, Louis & Carreau, Michel (2017). Arctic climate horizontal ground-coupled heat pump. Geoth. Res. Council Trans., 41: 1958-1978.

Comeau, Félix-Antoine; Raymond, Jasmin; Malo, Michel; Dezayes, Chrystel & Carreau, Michel (2017). Geothermal potential of northern Québec: a regional assessment. Geoth. Res. Council Trans., 41: 1076-1094.

Raymond, Jasmin; Sirois, Cédric; Nasr, Maher & Malo, Michel (2017). Evaluating the geothermal heat pump potential from a thermostratigraphic assessment of rock samples in the St. Lawrence Lowlands, CanadaEnviron. Earth Sci., 76: Art. 83.
DOI: 10.1007/s12665-017-6398-y

Blessent, Daniela; Raymond, Jasmin & Dezayes, C. (2016). Les ressources géothermiques profondes au Québec & en Colombie: un secteur dont le développement pourrait s’inspirer des centrales géothermiques en FranceTech. Sci. Méth., 9: 52-67.
DOI: 10.1051/tsm/201609052

Raymond, Jasmin; Lamarche, Louis & Malo, Michel (2016). Extending thermal response test assessments with inverse numerical modeling of temperature profiles measured in ground heat exchangersRenew. Energ., 99: 614-621.
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.07.005

Rouleau, Jean; Gosselin, Louis & Raymond, Jasmin (2016). New concept of combined hydro-thermal response tests (H/TRTS) for ground heat exchangersGeothermics, 62: 103-114.
DOI: 10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.03.002

Raymond, J.; Lamarche, L. & Malo, M. (2015). Field demonstration of a first thermal response test with a low power sourceAppl. Ener., 147: 30-39.
DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.117

Raymond, J.; Mercier, S. & Nguyen, L. (2015). Designing coaxial ground heat exchangers with a thermally enhanced outer pipeGeoth. Energ., 3: Art. 7.
DOI: 10.1186/s40517-015-0027-3