Expertises

Couches minces de nouveaux matériaux , Hétérostructures , Matériaux ferroïques et multifrroïques , Microscopie de force piézoélectrique (PFM) , Nanostructures

Téléphone
514 228-6805

Télécopieur
450 929-8102

Courriel
alain.pignolet@emt.inrs.ca

Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications

1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet
Varennes (Québec)  J3X 1S2
CANADA

 

Voir le centre

Intérêts de recherche

Le professeur Alain Pignolet œuvre dans le domaine de la synthèse et de la caractérisation de couches minces, d’hétérostructures et de nanostructures de nouveaux matériaux fonctionnels et leurs applications potentielles à la micro- et nanoélectronique, ainsi qu’à la génération, la conversion et le stockage de l’énergie.

Il possède une solide expérience dans les domaines de la déposition de couches minces et de la caractérisation des matériaux. Une partie de ses travaux de recherche se concentre sur la croissance et l’épitaxie de couches minces et de nanostructures de matériaux ferroïques (magnétiques, ferroélectriques), multiferroïques et magnétoélectriques ayant une structure cristalline de type perovskite, double-persovskite ou perovskite en couches, ainsi que sur l’étude de leurs propriétés structurales et fonctionnelles, aussi bien globales que locales. Un volet de ses travaux concerne donc la caractérisation ultra-locale des propriétés fonctionnelles des matériaux au moyen de la microscopie à sonde locale, en particulier la microscopie à force magnétique, la mesure de la conductivité locale, et, en ce qui concerne les matériaux polaires, la microscopie de force piézoélectrique.

Formation universitaire et biographie

Alain Pignolet est professeur agrégé et directeur du ‘Ferroic-Lab’, le laboratoire de matériaux ferroïque de l’INRS – Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications depuis avril 2002.

Avec plus d’une centaine de publications dans des revues à comité de lecture, trois chapitres de livre et plus de 2000 citations, le professeur Pignolet a été à l’avant-garde des recherches sur la synthèse et la caractérisation de couches minces et de nanostructures de matériaux fonctionnels avancés tels que les oxydes ferroélectriques, ferroïques et multiferroïques. Il a également contribué à l’avancement de la microscopie à force piézoélectrique qui permet l’imagerie et la caractérisation des propriétés piézoélectriques et ferroélectriques à l’échelle nanométrique.

Alain Pignolet a obtenu un baccalauréat en génie physique et un doctorat en physique de l’École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Suisse.

Après avoir rejoint la division de recherche d’IBM (Thomas Watson Research Center) en tant que stagiaire postdoctoral, il a commencé à travailler sur les matériaux ‘relaxors’  haute permittivité, travaux qu’il a poursuivi s au Materials Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, synthétisant des couches minces d’oxydes complexes principalement e utilisant l’ablation laser pulsée (PLD), la pulvérisation cathodique magnétron multi-cibles réactie, ainsi que la pulvérisation cathodique par faisceau ionique.

D’octobre 1994 à décembre 2001, il a occupé un poste de chercheur au Max-Planck Insititut für Mikrostrukturphysik (Halle / Saale, Allemagne) où il a établi un laboratoire de dépôt par PLD capable de déposer des couches minces ferroélectriques sur des surfaces équivalant à la surfaces des plaquettes de silicium de 3 ou 4 pouces utilisées (à l’époque) dans l’industrie microélectronique. Il a aussi travaillé sur l’optimisation et une meilleure compréhension de la microscopie à force piézoélectrique.

Les intérêts et  activités de recherche du professeur Pignolet comprennent la croissance et l’étude de couches minces épitaxiées et de nanostructures de matériaux fonctionnels tels que les matériaux ferroélectriques, multiferroïques, magnétiques, magnéto-optiques ou magnétoélectriques destinés à la micro- ou la nano-électronique et à la photonique intégrée.

Il a un intérêt particulier pour les nouveaux matériaux multiferroïques et magnétoélectriques à température ambiante. Il a notamment étudié la croissance d’hétérostructures nanocomposites multiferroïques, telles que les films composites épitaxiés magnétiques g-Fe2O3 et ferroélectriques BiFeO3, ainsi que les films composites épitaxiés de BaFe12019 magnétique et de Ba2LnFeNb4O15 (Ln = Eu, Nd,) ferroélectriques.

L’équipe du professeur Pignolet a également été la première à réaliser la croissance et de la caractérisation de couches minces épitaxiées de Bi2FeCrO6 (BFCO), un matériau multiferroïque prédit par calcul ab initio mais jamais synthétisé expérimentalement. Il a montré avec son groupe que les couches minces épitaxiées et les nanostructures de BFCO soumises à une contrainte de compression présentent des propriétés multiferroïques à température ambiante, dépassant ainsi les prévisions théoriques. De même, les contraintes épitaxiales ont également été utilisées pour stabiliser la phase métastable epsilon de la ferrite (ε-Fe2O3), un matériau magnétique dur potentiellement multiferroïque à la température ambiante, en plus de posséder le plus grand champ coercitif parmi les oxydes et de présenter une fréquence de résonance magnétique dans la gamme des bas THz. Les couches minces épitaxiés de ε-Fe2O3 présentent donc dans un seul et même matériau plusieurs propriétés intéressantes pour diverses applications.

Projets de recherche en cours

  • Synthèse et étude de couches minces épitaxiées de matériaux multifonctionnels monophasés et composites, notamment des couches minces composites multiferroïques et magnétoélectriques.
  • Étude de couches et multicouches de matériaux ferroïques (par ex. ferroélectriques) pour la fabrication de dispositifs multifonctionnels intégrés novateurs.
  • Couches perovskites hybrides organiques-inorganiques pour cellules solaires stables à l’atmosphère ambiante.
  • Microscopie de force piézoélectrique (PFM), de force magnétique (MFM) et conductivité locale (C-AFM) afin d’étudier les divers domaines et les parois de domaines des matériaux (multi)ferroïques.
  • [Spectroscopie Raman exaltée par effet de pointe (TERS) – en collaboration avec Prof. Andreas Ruediger].
  • Croissance et positionnement contrôlés de nanostructures de matériaux fonctionnels obtenues par ablation laser pulsée à travers des ‘nano-masques’ (nanostenciling).

 

 

 

Collaborations 

  • INRS (professeur François Vidal)
  • Polytechnique Montréal (Professeur David Ménard, Christina Lacroix, Ph. D.)
  • McMaster University (Professeur Gianluigi Botton)
  • ETS-Montréal (Professeur Sylvain G. Cloutier)
  • University of Warwick (Professeur Marin Alexe)
  • ICMCB-CNRS / Université de Bordeaux (Dr. Michael Josse, Dr. Mario Maglione)

Activités scientifiques

  • Membre du comité multidisciplinaire d’évaluation NC05 du FRQNT : Chimie Physique et Matériaux
  • Membre du Comité Scientifique du Fond Canadien pour l’Innovation (FCI) jugeant les projets en compétition pour le Fond des Leaders ayant un thème relavant de la Sciences des matériaux.
  • Expert-évaluateur pour le programme Subvention à la Découverte du Conseil de Recherche en Science Naturelle et Génie du Canada (CRSNG).
  • Évaluateur externe du jury de thèse de M. Hao Zhang “Novel Phases on Hetero-Epitaxial and Super-Oxygenated Thin Films of Complex Oxides”, Physics Department, University of Toronto, Avril 2018
  • Évaluateur externe du jury de thèse de Mme Deepa Singh, Materials Science & Eng., IIT-Kanpur, India, “Approaches for improving ferroelectric properties of P(VDF-TrFE) for flexible memory devices”, August 2016.
  • Évaluateur externe du jury de thèse de Mme Olga Chichvarina, Materials Science & Eng. , National University of Singapore (NUS) “Study of Structure and Properties of Oxide Electrode Materials (Fe3O4, AZO, SRO) and their Device Applications”, Avril 2016.
  • Évaluateur externe du jury de thèse de M. Hao Zhang  “Novel Phases on Hetero-Epitaxial and Super-Oxygenated Thin Films of Complex Oxides”, Physics Department, University of Toronto, Avril 2018
  • Associate Editor, The European Physical Journal of Applied Physics
  • Membre régulier des comités de lecture de : Applied Physics Letter, Physical Review B, Physical Review Letters, Journal of Applied Physics, Applied Physics A, Thin Solid Films, Functional Materials Letters, Microelectronic Engineering, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Journal of Materials Chemistry C

Publications

(h-index-ISI: 30; 2080 citations w/o self-cit./ h-index-Google Scholar: 32)

Articles Published:

Debika Banerjee, Ivy M. Asuo, Alain Pignolet & Sylvain G. Cloutier, Low-cost photodetector architectures fabricated at room-temperature using nano-engineered silicon wafer and sol-gel TiO2-based heterostructures, Sci Rep9, 17994 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54481-8.

I.M. Asuo, I.Ka, D. Gedamu, A. Pignolet, R. Nechache, and S.G. Cloutier, Tunable thiocyanate-doped perovskite microstructure via water-ethanol additives for stable solar cells at ambient conditions, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 110029 (2019).

I.M. Asuo, P. Fourmont, I.Ka, D. Gedamu, S. Bouzidi, A. Pignolet, R. Nechache, and
S.G. Cloutier, Highly Efficient and Ultrasensitive Large-Area Flexible Photodetector Based on Perovskite Nanowires, Small  15 1804150, (2019), doi: smll.201804150.

A. Carranco-Rodriguez, A. Pofelski, S. Cheng, L. Corbellini, A. Pignolet, P. Long, G.A. Botton, Atomic-resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy of Iron Oxide Epitaxial Thin Films. Microscopy and Microanalysis.24(S1):1614-1615 (2018).

I. Ka, I.M. Asuo,S. Basu, P. Fourmont, D. Gedamu, A. Pignolet, S.G. Cloutier, R. Nechache, Hysteresis-Free 1D Network Mixed Halide-Perovskite Semitransparent Solar Cells, Small  14 1802319 (2018). doi: 10.1002/smll.201802319.

J. Plathier, A. Pignolet, A. Ruediger, Note: Controlling the length of plasmionic tips obtained by pulsed electromechanical etching, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 89 096107 (2018).

I.M. Asuo, D. Gedamu, I. Ka, L.P. Guerlein, F.-X. Fortier, A. Pignolet, S.G. Cloutier,
R. Nechache, High-performance pseudo-halide perovskite nanowire networks for stable and fast-response photodetector, Nano Energy 51 324-332 (2018), doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.06.057.

G. KolhatkarJ. Plathier, A. Pignolet, A. Ruediger, Effect of the Gold Crystallinity on the Enhanced Luminescence Signal of Scanning Probe Tips in Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy, Optics Express 25, 25929-25937 (2017) doi: 10.1039/C7NH00075H.

J. Plathier, A. Krayev, V. Gavrilyuk, A. Pignolet, A. Ruediger, Permittivity imaged at the nanoscale using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, RSC Nanoscale 2, 365-369 (2017), doi: 10.1039/C7NH00075H.

J. Plathier, A. Merlen, A. Pignolet, A. Ruediger, Relation between plasmonic tip emission and electromagnetic enhancement evidenced in Tip Enhanced Raman, published online Oct. 2017,  J. Raman Spectrosc. 1–8  (2017), doi: 10.1002/jrs.5260.

L. Corbellini, Ch. Lacroix, D. Ménard, A. Pignolet, The effect of Al substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial thin films of Epsilon Ferrite, Scripta Materialia 140, 63-66 (2017);  available online http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359646217304062

L. Corbellini, Ch. Lacroix, C. Harnagea, A. Korinek, G.A. Botton, D. Ménard, A. Pignolet, Epitaxially stabilized thin films of ε-Fe2O3(001) on YSZ(100), Sci. Reports 7, 3712 (2017).

T. Hajlaoui, C. Chabanier, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, Epitaxial Ba2NdFeNb4O15-based multiferroic nanocomposite thin films with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure, Scripta Materialia 136, 1–5 (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2017.04.005.

T. Hajlaoui, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, Influence of lanthanide ions on multiferroic properties of Ba2LnFeNb4O15 (Ln = Eu3+, Sm3+ and Nd3+) thin films grown on silicon by pulsed laser deposition, Materials Letters 198, 136–139 (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2017.04.023.

T. Hajlaoui, C. Harnagea, D. Michau, M. Josse, A. Pignolet, Highly oriented multiferroic Ba2NdFeNb4O15-based composite thin films with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure on silicon substrates, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 711, 480-487 (2017).

T. Hajlaoui, L. Corbellini, C. Harnagea, M. Josse, A. Pignolet, Enhanced ferroelectric properties in multiferroic epitaxial Ba2EuFeNb4O15 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition, Materials Research Bulletin 87,  186–192 (2017).

T. Hajlaoui, M. Josse, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, Tetragonal tungsten bronze Ba2EuFeNb4O15–based composite thin films multiferroic at room temperature, Materials Research Bulletin 86, 30–37 (2017). [Also on the cover page of Materials Research Bulletin Volume 86, February 2017]

L. Corbellini, J. Plathier, Ch. Lacroix, C. Harnagea, D. Ménard, A. Pignolet, Hysteresis loops revisited: an efficient method to analyze ferroic materials, J. Appl. Phys. 120, 124101 (2016).

A. Pignolet, News & Views: Ferroelectrics Chaotic Memory, Nature Physics 10, 9-11 (2014). 

C. Harnagea, M. Azodi, R. Nechache, C.-V. Cojocaru, V. Buscaglia, M.-T. Buscaglia, P. Nanni, F. Rosei, A. Pignolet, Characterization of individual multifunctional nanoobjects with restricted geometry, Phase Transitions 86, 635-650 (2013), published online Oct 2012.

Lina Gunawan, Guo-Zhen Zhu, Yang Shao, Sorin Lazar, Olivier Gautreau, Catalin Harnagea, Alain Pignolet, Gianluigi A. Botton, Structural investigation of interface and defects in epitaxial Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 film on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 (111) and (100), J. Appl. Phys. 113,044102 (2013).

M. Azodi, C. Harnagea, V. Buscaglia, M.-T. Buscaglia, P. Nanni, F. Rosei, A. Pignolet, Ferroelectric Switching in Bi4Ti3O12 nanorods,  IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 59, 1903-1911 (2012).

R. Nechache, C. Nauenheim, U. Lanke, A. Pignolet, F. Rosei and A. Ruediger,Coexistence of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders at remanent state in epitaxial multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6 nanostructures, J. Phys. Condensed Matter 24, 142202 (2012). Selected for inclusion in ‘IOP Select’

Riad Nechache, Catalin Harnagea and Alain Pignolet, Multiferroic properties-structure relationships in epitaxial Bi2FeCrO6 thin films: recent developments, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 24, 096001 (2012). Selected by the editors for inclusion in the ‘Highlights of 2012’ collection.

Jae-Yeol Hwang, Marcello Ferrera, Luca Razzari, Alain Pignolet, and Roberto Morandotti, Response to “Comment on ‘The role of Bi3+ ions in magneto-optic Ce and Bi comodified epitaxial iron garnet films’ ” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 126101 (2011)], Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 126102   (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3610453.

Jae-Yeol Hwang, Roberto Morandotti and Alain Pignolet, Strong Faraday rotation in Ce and Bi comodified epitaxial iron garnet films, Appl. Phys. Lett.  99 051916 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3621838.

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, S. Licoccia, E. Traversa, A. Ruediger, A.Pignolet, F. Rosei, Photovoltaic properties of Bi2FeCrO6 epitaxial thin films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98202902 (2011); doi:10.1063/1.3590270.

R. Nechache, C.-V. Cojocaru, C. Harnagea, C. Nauenheim, M. Nicklaus, A. Ruediger, F. Rosei, and A. Pignolet, Epitaxial patterning of Bi2FeCrO6 double perovskite nanostructures multiferroic at room temperature, Advanced Materials 23, 1724-29 (2011); doi: 10.1002/adma.201004405.

M. Nicklaus, A. Pignolet, C. Harnagea, A. Ruediger, Noncontact atomic force microscopy imaging of ferroelectric domains with functionalized tips, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 162901 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3579148.

M. Rivard, M. Laliberté, A. Bertrand-Grenier, C. Harnagea, C.P. Pfeffer, M. Vallières. Y. St-Pierre, A. Pignolet, M.A. El Khakani, and F. Légaré,  The structural origin of Second Harmonic Generation in fascia, Biomedical Optics Express 2 , 26-36 (2011).

O. Gautreau, C. Harnagea, L. Gunawan, G.A. Botton, L. Pintilie and A. Pignolet, Microstructure and ferroic properties of epitaxial [γ-Fe2O3 – BiFeO3]- Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 composite bilayersJ. Appl. Phys. 108 114111 (August  2010).

Jae-Yeol Hwang, Marcello Ferrera, Luca Razzari, Alain Pignolet, and Roberto Morandotti, The role of Bi3+ ions in magneto-optic Ce and Bi comodified epitaxial iron garnet films, Appl. Phys. Lett. (Sept. 2010), Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 161901 (2010).

Sorin Lazar, Yang Shao, Lina Gunawan, Riad Nechache, Alain Pignolet, Gianluigi A. Botton, Imaging, core-loss and low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping in aberration-corrected STEM, Microsc. Microanal. 16, 416-424 (2010).

Catalin Harnagea, Martin Vallières, Christian P. Pfeffer, Dong Wu, Bjorn R. Olsen, Alain Pignolet, François Légaré,  Alexei Gruverman, Two-dimensional nanoscale structural and functional imaging in single collagen type-I fibrils, Biophysical Journal 98, 3070-3077 (2010).

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, A. Ruediger, F. Rosei and A. Pignolet, Effect of epitaxial strain on the structural and ferroelectric properties of Bi2FeCrO6 thin films, Functional Materials Letters 383-88 (2010).

A. Achkar P. Jedrzejowski, A. Pignolet, A. Sarkissian, Porous and dense ZnO films produced by femtosecond and picosecond pulsed laser deposition, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials 12 646 – 649 (2010).

C.V. Cojocaru, R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet and F. Rosei, Nanoscale patterning of functional perovskite-type complex oxides by pulsed laser deposition through a nanostencil. Appl. Surf. Sci., 256  4777-4783 (2010).

L. Gunawan, S. Lazar, O. Gautreau, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, and G. A. Botton, Locating La atoms in epitaxial Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 films through atomic resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 192902 (2009).

Maria Teresa Buscaglia, Catalin Harnagea, Monica Dapiaggi, Vincenzo Buscaglia, Alain Pignolet, and Paolo Nanni, Ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanowires by solid-state reaction, Chem. Mater. 21, 5058-65 (2009).

Manda Chandra Sekhar, Jae-Yeol Hwang, Marcello Ferrera, Yoav Linzon, Luca Razzari, Catalin Harnagea, Michael Zaezjev, Alain Pignolet and Roberto Morandotti, Strong enhancement of the Faraday rotation in Ce and Bi co-modified epitaxial iron garnet thin films, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181916 (2009).

F. Rosei, A. Pignolet, T. Johnston, How to Survive in Materials Science – I: Developing a graduate course on Survival Skills for Scientists, J. Materials Education 31, 65-80 (2009).

O. Gautreau, C. Harnagea1, L. Gunawan, R. Nechache, M. P. Singh, P. Fournier, G. A. Botton, and A. Pignolet, Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Magnetic Force Microscopy Characterization of γ-Fe2O3 – BiFeO3 Nanocomposite / Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 Multiferroic Bilayers, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 321, 1799-1802 (2009) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.02.009

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, L.-P. Carignan, O. Gautreau, L. Pintilie, M. P. Singh, D. Ménard, P. Fournier, M. Alexe, and A. Pignolet, Pressure-temperature phase diagram for thin films of the Bi-Fe-Cr-O system:Epitaxial films of the pure Bi2FeCrO6 double perovskite phase, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 061621 (2009) [“ISIF2008 Special Issue”]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3073826

Y. Linzon, M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, A. Pignolet, and R. Morandotti, Polarization proximity effect in isolator crystal pairs, Optics Letters 33, 71-73 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.33.002871

L. Gunawan,  O. Gautreau, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, and G.A. Botton,Direct Structural Investigation of Bi3.25La 0.75Ti3O12 thin films on SrRuO3/(111)SrTiO3, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 14 (Suppl. 2) 428-429 (2008).

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea,  L.-P. Carignan, D. Ménard, and A. Pignole,  Structure and Properties of Epitaxial Thin Films of Bi2FeCrO6: a Multiferroic Material postulated by ab-initio Computation, Integrated Ferroelectrics 101, 152-163 (2008).

O. Gautreau, C. Harnagea, F. Normandin, T. Veres,L. Pintilie, M. Alexe, L. Gunawan, G.A. Botton, and A. Pignolet Structural and multiferroic properties of epitaxial BiFeO3γ-Fe2O3/Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 bi-layers, J. Phys. D 41, 112002 (2008) [Rapid Communication].

S. Kamba, D. Nuzhnyy,1 R. Nechache, K. Závěta, D. Nižňanský, E. Šantavá,C. Harnagea, and A. Pignolet, Infrared and magnetic characterization of multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6 thin films over a broad temperature range, Phys. Rev. B 77, 104111 (2008).

F. Cicoira, C. Santato, A. Dadvand, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, P. Bellutti, Z. Xiang, F. Rosei, H. Meng and D. F. Perepichka, Environmentally stable Light Emitting Field Effect Transistors based on 2-(4-pentylstyryl)tetracene, J. Mater. Chem., 18, 158 – 161 (2008) [Communication].

C. Harnagea, C.-V. Cojocaru, R. Nechache, O. Gautreau, F. Rosei, and A. Pignolet, Towards ferroelectric and multiferroic nanostructures and their characterization. Int. J. Nanotechnology 5, (vol. 9-12: special issue on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in Canada), 930-963 (2008).

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, L. Gunawan, L.-P. Carignan, C. Maunders, D. Ménard, G. A. Botton, and A. Pignolet Growth, Structure and Properties of BiFeO3-BiCrO3 Films obtained by Dual Cross Beam PLD, IEEE Transcations of Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 54, 2645-2652 (2007).

R. Nechache, P. Gupta, C. Harnagea, and A. Pignolet., Enhanced magnetism in epitaxial BiFeO3/BiCrO3 multiferroic heterostructures, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 222908 (2007).

R. Nechache, L.-P. Carignan, L. Gunawan, C. Harnagea, G. Botton, D. Ménard and A. Pignolet, Epitaxial thin films of multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6. with B-site cationic order, J. Mater. Res. 22(8: focused issue on Multiferroics), 2102-2110, (2007).

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea,L.-P. Carignan, D. Ménard and A. Pignolet, Epitaxial Multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6.Thin Films. Phil. Mag. Lett. 87, 231-40 (2007).

O. Gautreau,  C. Harnagea, F. Normandin, T. Veres, A. Pignolet, Room Temperature Pulsed Laser Deposited Thin SrRuO3 Films, Thin Solid Films 515, 4580-4587 (2007).

C. Harnagea, C.V. Cojocaru, O. Gautreau, F. Rosei and A. Pignolet, Ferroelectric mesoscopic structures by room-temperature PLD, accepted for publication in Proc. 8th Conference on Laser Ablation – COLA 2005, September 11-16, 2005, Banff, Canada,  J. Phys. Conf. Series 59, 636-639 (2007).

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea,A. Pignolet, L.-P. Carignan, and D. Ménard, Growth, structure and multiferroic properties of epitaxial Bi2FeCrO6 thin films, Proceedings Cansmart 2006 International Workshop, Ocober 12-13, 2006, Toronto, ON, Canada.

R. Nechache, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, F. Normandin, T. Veres, L.-P. Carignan, and D. Ménard, Growth, Structure and Properties of Epitaxial Thin Films of First Principles Predicted Multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 102902 (2006).

C. Harnagea,A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, D. Hesse, Higher-order electromechanical response of thin films by contact resonance piezoresponse force microscopy, IEEE Transcations of Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics  and Frequency Control 53, 2309-2322 (2006). [invited paper in a special issue on ‘Nanoscale Ferroelectrics’]

C. Harnagea, C.V. Cojocaru, A. Pignolet, Local ferroelectric switching properties in BiFeO3 micro-structures and their piezomagnetic response, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 902E , T10-57.1 (2006).

C.-V. Cojocaru, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet and F. Rosei, Nanostenciling of Functional Materials by Room Temperature Pulsed Laser Deposition, IEEE-Trans. on Nannotechnology 5, 470-477 (2006).

C. Harnagea, C.V. Cojocaru, O. Gautreau, R. Nechache, F. Normandin, T. Veres, and A. Pignolet, Piezoresponse Force Microscopy of PLD-grown Multiferroic BiFeO3 Films and Mesostructures, Integrated Ferroelectrics 83, 1-12 (2006).

C.-V. Cojocaru, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet and F. Rosei, Patterning of Functional Materials by Pulsed Laser Deposition through Nanostencils, Proceedings of NanoSingapore 2006: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies – Nanoelectronics.

C.-V. Cojocaru, F. Ratto, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, F. Rosei, Semiconductor and insulator nanostructures: Challenges and opportunities, Microelectron. Eng. 80, 448-456 (2005).

C.-V. Cojocaru, C. Harnagea, F. Rosei, A. Pignolet, M.A.F. Van den Boogaart, J. Brugger, Nanostructured Complex Oxides by Pulsed Laser Deposition through Nanostencil, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183107 (2005).

C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, and D. Hesse, Possibilities and limitations of voltage-modulated force microscopy: Resonances in contact mode, Integrated Ferroelectrics 60, 101-110 (2004).

C. Harnagea, M. Alexe, D. Hesse, and A. Pignolet, Contact Resonances in Voltage-Modulated Force Microscopy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 338-340 (2003).

A. Visinoiu, M. Alexe, H.N.Lee, N.D. Zakharov, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse and U. Gösele, Combined AFM, XTEM and XRD investigation of the initial growth stages of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on vicinal SrTiO3  (001) substrate surfaces, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 10157 (2002).

A. Visinoiu, M. Alexe, H.N.Lee, N.D. Zakharov, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse and U. Gösele, Initial growth stages of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on vivinal SrTiO3:Nb (001) substrates, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 688, (Ferroelectric Thin films X, edited by S.R. Gilbert, Y. Miyasaka, D. Wouters, S. Trolier-McKinstry, S.K. Streiffer) C8.4 (2002).

G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, Nonlinear optical probing of nanocrystalline orientation in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films, J. Appl. Phys.91, 362 (2002).

C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe and  D. Hesse, Piezoresponse scanning force microscopy: What quantitative information can we really get out of piezoresponse measurements on ferroelectric thin films?”, Integrated Ferroelectrics 44,113-124 (2002).

H.N. Lee, D.N.  Zakharov, S. Senz, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, Eitaxial growth of ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films of mixed (100) and (116) orientation on SrLaGaO4 (110), Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2961-3 (2001).

H.N. Lee, D. N.  Zakharov, S. Senz, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, Growth and characterization of non-c-axis-oriented SrBi2Ta2O9 epitaxial thin films on Si(100) substrates with SrRuO3 bottom electrodes, Integr. Ferroelec. 39 1023-1030 (2001).

H.N. Lee, A. Pignolet, S. Senz, C. Harnagea and D. Hesse, Direct comparison of structural and electrical properties of epitaxial (001)-, (116)-, and (103)-oriented SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films on SrTiO3 and silicon substrates,Mater. Res. Soc. Proc.  655, (Ferroelectric Thin films IX, edited by P.C.McIntyre, S.R.Gilbert, Y.Miyasaka, R.W.Schwartz, and  D.Wouters) pp. CC5.3.1 – CC5.3.1.6 (2001).

H. N. Lee, S. Senz, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, Epitaxial growth of (103)-oriented ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films on Si(100), Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2922-4 (2001).

H.N. Lee, S.Senz, A. Pignolet, and D.Hesse, Epitaxial growth of non-c-axis-oriented ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 21, 1565-68 (2001).

A. Pignolet, C. Harnagea, H.N. Lee, A. Visinoiu, S. Senz, and D. Hesse, Ferroelctricity in epitaxial pulsed laser deposited bismuth-layered perovskite thin films of different crystallo-graphic orientations, Ferroelectrics 258, 197-208 (2001).

M.Alexe, C. Harnagea, A. Visinoiu, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Patterning and switching of nano-size ferroelectic memory cells, Scripta Materialia 44, 1175-79 (2001).

D. Hesse, H. N. Lee, A. Pignolet, N.D. Zakharov, C. Harnagea, and S. Senz, Microstructure and properties of epitaxial ferroelectric bismuth-layered  perovskite thin films grown on Si(100) with a polarization component  perpendicular to the film plane, Proc. 12th IEEE Int. Symp. on Applications of Ferroelectrics (ISAF-2000), 21.7.- 2.8.2000, Honolulu/Hawaii, USA. Edited by S.K. Streiffer, B.J. Gibbons, and  T. Tsurumi. IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control Society,  Piscataway, NJ, 2001. Vol. 1, pp. 181-184.

H.N. Lee, S. Senz, N.D. Zakharov, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Growth and characterization  of non-c-oriented epitaxial ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 films on buffered Si(100), Appl. Phys. Lett., 77 3260 ( 2000).

D. Hesse, N. D. Zakharov, A. Pignolet, A. R .James, and S. Senz, TEM cross-section investigations of epitaxial Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 thin films on LaNiO3 bottom electrodes on CeO2/YSZ-buffered Si(100), Crys. Res. Technol. 35, 641–651, (2000) (Heydenreich-Band).

R.K. Soni, A. Dixit, R.S. Katiyar, A. Pignolet, K.M. Satyalakshmi, and D. Hesse, Light scattering from pulsed laser deposited BaBi4Ti4O15 thin films, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 263, 167–172 (2000).

N.D. Zakharov, A. R. James, A. Pignolet, S. Senz, and D. Hesse, Lattice defects in epitaxial Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition onto LaNiO3 bottom electrodes, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 263, 173-178 (2000).

A. Pignolet, and M. Alexe, Nanostructured arrays maintain long memories, Vacuum Solutions 16, 21-25 (Issue July/August 2000).

H.N. Lee, A. Visinoiu, S. Senz, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Structural and electrical anisotropy of (001)-, (116)- and (103)-oriented SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates grown by pulsed laser deposition, J. Appl. Phys. 88 6658-6664 (2000).

H.N. Lee, S. Senz, A. Visinoiu, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, U. Gösele, Epitaxial growth of non-c-oriented ferroelectric SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films on Si(100) substrates, Applied Physics A 71, 101-104 (2000).

A. Pignolet, C. Harnagea, A. R. James, S. Senz, N. D. Zakharov, D. Hesse, Structure-property relationships of thin films of epitaxial ferroelectric bismuth-layered perovskites with even and odd Aurivillius parameters, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 596, 415 – 426 (2000).

C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Domain imaging, polarization hysteresis and switching in nano-size ferroelectric structures, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 596, 351 – 356 (2000).

A.R. James, A. Pignolet, S, Senz, N. D. Zakharov, and D. Hesse, Growth and characterization of epitaxial Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 films deposited by pulsed laser ablation, Solid State Commun. 114, 249-253 (2000).

A.R. James, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and U.Gösele, Structural and electrical characterization of epitaxial large area ferroelectric films of Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 grown by pulsed eximer laser ablation, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 2825-2829 (2000).

A. Gruverman, A. Pignolet, K. M. Satyalakshmi, M. Alexe, N. D. Zakharov, and D. Hesse Nanoscopic switching  behavior of epitaxial SrBi2Ta2O9 films deposited by pulsed laser deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 106-108 (2000).

C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Quantitative ferroelectric characterization of single submicron grains in bismuth-layered preovskite thin films, Applied Physics A 70, 261-267 (2000).

A. Pignolet, C. Schäfer, K.M. Satyalakshmi, C. Harnagea, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele Orientation dependence of ferroelectricity in pulsed laser deposited epitaxial bismuth-layered perovskite thin films, Applied Physics A 70, 283-291 (2000).

C. Harnagea, M. Alexe, A. Pignolet, K. M. Satyalakshmi, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele Switching of ferroelectric nanostructures, Piezoelectric Materials: Advances in Science, Technology and Applications (Proc. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Predeal/Romania, May 24-26, 1999) edited by C.Galassi, M.Dinescu, K.Uchino, and

M. Sayer (NATO Science Series No.3 – High Technology, vol. 76). Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.169-177, 2000.

M. Alexe, C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele Nano-size ferroelectric structures, Piezoelectric Materials: Advances in Science, Technology and Applications (Proc. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Predeal/Romania, May 24-26, 1999) edited by C.Galassi, M.Dinescu, K.Uchino, and M.Sayer (NATO Science Series No.3 – High Technology, vol. 76). Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.49-57, 2000.

M. Alexe, A. Gruverman, C. Harnagea, N.D. Zakharov, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and J.F. Scott, Switching properties of self-assembled ferroelectric memory cells, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1158-1160 (1999).

C. Harnagea, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, K. M. Satyalakshmi, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele Nanoscale switching and domain structure of ferroelectric BaBi4Ti4O15 thin films, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2: 38(11A), L1255-L1257 (1999).

A. Gruverman, K. Hironaka, Y. Ikeda, K.M. Satyalakshmi, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, N.D. Zakharov, and D. Hesse, SFM Characterization of SrBi2Ta2O9 thin films for nanoscale memory applications (Proc. ISIF 99, Colorado Springs, March 7-10, 1999), Integrated Ferroelectrics 27, 159-169 (1999).

M. Alexe, S. Senz, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele,Direct wafer bonding and layer transfer for ferroelectric film  integration, (Proc.   ISIF 99, Colorado Springs, March 7-10, 1999), Integrated Ferroelectrics 27, 205-211 (1999).

A. Pignolet, K. . Satyalakshmi, M. Alexe, N.D. Zakharov, C. Harnagea, S. Senz, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Epitaxial bismuth-layer-structured perovskite ferroelectric thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition, (Proc.   ISIF 99, Colorado Springs, March 7-10, 1999), Integrated Ferroelectrics 26, 723-731 (1999).

J. Zeng, L. Zheng, C. Lin, M. Alexe, A. Pignolet and D. Hesse, The structural and electric behavior of  SrBi2Ta2O9 ferroelectric thin films with H+ implantation, Phys. Lett. A 251, 336-339 (1999).

M. Alexe, S. Senz, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Direct wafer bonding and layer transfer – a new approach to integration of ferroelectric oxides into silicon technology (Proc. AMF-2, Singapore, December 7 – 11, 1998) Ferroelectrics 231, 169-178 (1999).

K.M. Satyalakshmi, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, N.D. Zakharov, C. Harnagea, S. Senz, S. Reichelt, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele All epitaxial BaBi4Ti4O15 – LaNiO3 heterostructures, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 541 (Ferroelectric thin films VII), 205-210 (1999).

M. Alexe, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Structural and electrical properties of metal-ferroelectric-silicon heterostructures made by direct wafer bonding and layer transfer process (Proc. ECAPD IV, Montreux, Switzerland, August 24-27, 1998) Ferroelectrics 225, 75–82 (1999).

A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, K. M. Satyalakshmi, S. Senz, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Epitaxial Bi-layered perovskite ferroelectric thin film heterostructures by large area pulsed   laser deposition (Proc. ECAPD IV, Montreux, Switzerland, August 24-27, 1998), Ferroelectrics 225,  201-220 (1999).

K. M. Satyalakshmi, M. Alexe, A. Pignolet, N.D. Zakharov, C. Harnagea S. Senz, and D. Hesse,BaBi4Ti4O15 ferroelectric thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 603-605 (1999).

J. Zeng, C. Lin, L. Zheng, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, E. Richter, and D. Hesse, Effect of  H+ and O+ implantation on electrical properties of SrBi2Ta2O9 ferroelectric thin films (Proc. 1998 E-MRS Spring Meeting) Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B 147, 207-211 (1999).

J.F. Scott, M. Alexe, N.D. Zakharov, A. Pignolet, C. Curran, and D. Hesse, Nano-Phase SBT-family Ferroelectric Memories, Integrated Ferroelectrics 21, 1-14 (1998).

L. Pintilie, M. Alexe, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, Bi4Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin film ultra violet detectors, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 342 (1998).

M. Alexe, J. F. Scott, C. Curran, N. D. Zakharov, D. Hesse, and A. Pignolet, Self-patterning nano-electrodes on ferroelectric thin films for Gigabit memory applications,  Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1592  (1998).

A. Pignolet, C. Curran, M. Alexe, S. Senz, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Epitaxial and large area PLD ferroelectric thin film heterostructures on silicon substrates, Integrated Ferroelectrics 21, 485-498 (1998).

A. Pignolet, C. Curran, S. Welke, M. Alexe, S. Senz, D. Hesse, U. Gösele, Epitaxial ferroelectric thin films of Bi-layered perovskites on silicon-based epitaxial oxide heterostructures by large area pulsed laser deposition,  Proc. 11th  Int. Conf. on Ternary and  Multinary Compounds (ICTMC-11) Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No 152, 209 (1998).

A. Pignolet, C. Curran, S. Welke, M. Alexe, S. Senz, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Large area pulsed laser deposited ferroelectric thin films of epitaxial Bi-layered perovskites on silicon, J. Phys. IV  8, 251-254 (1998).

M. Alexe, R. Scholz, G. Kästner, A. Pignolet, U. Gösele, Direct wafer bonding: A new method for ferroelectric-silicon heterostructure fabrication,  J. Phys. IV  8, 239-242 (1998).

L. Pintilie, M. Alexe, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse, Photoelectric effects in chemical solution deposited Bi4Ti3O12 thin films, J. Phys. IV  8, 101-104 (1998).

P. Yang, L. Zheng, C. Lin, A. Pignolet, C. Curran., M. Alexe and D. Hesse, Pulsed laser deposition and characteristics of SrBi2Ta2O9  thin films, Journal of  the Korean Physical Society 32, S1383 (1998).

A. Pignolet, S. Welke, C. Curran, S. Senz, D. Hesse, Large area pulsed laser deposition of Bi-layered ferroelectric thin films, Journal of  the Korean Physical Society 32, S1476 (1998).

M. Alexe, A. Pignolet, S. Senz, D. Hesse, U. Gösele, Direct wafer bonding: A new method for ferroelectric-silicon heterostructure fabrication, Journal of  the Korean Physical Society 32, S1618 (1998).

M. Alexe,, J.F. Scott, A. Pignolet, D. Hesse and U. Gösele, Pb(Zr,Ti)03-silicon heterostructures fabricated by direct wafer bonding, Integrated Ferroelectrics19, 95 (1998).

M. Alexe, S. Senz, A. Pignolet, J. F. Scott, D. Hesse, and U. Gösele, Direct wafer bonding and layer transfer: An innovative way for the integration of  ferroelectric oxides into silicon technology, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 493 (Ferroelectric Thin Films VI), 517-522 (1997).

C. Curran, S. Senz, A. Pignolet, M. Alexe, S. Welke, and D. Hesse, Epitaxial ferroelectric Aurivillius-type phases on metallic oxides by pulsed laser deposition, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc.  474, 15 (1997).

M. Alexe, A. Pignolet, S. Senz, and D. Hesse, Physical properties of spin-on solution deposited Bi4Ti3O12 thin films on Si substrates, Ferroelectrics 201, 157 (1997).

A. Pignolet, S. Welke, C. Curran, M. Alexe, S. Senz, and D. Hesse Large area pulsed laser deposition  of  Aurivillius-type layered perovskite thin films, Ferroelectrics 202, 285 (1997).

M. Alexe, L. Pintilie, I. Pintilie, A. Pignolet, S. Senz, and D. Hesse, Photoelectric properties of PbTiO3 / Si  heterostructures, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 433 425 (Ferroelectric Thin Films V) (1996).

A. Pignolet, C. Curran, S. Welke, S. Senz, M. Alexe, D. Hesse and U. Gösele, Large area pulsed laser deposition  of  Aurivillius-type layered perovskite thin films, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc.  433, 125 (Ferroelectric Thin Films V) (1996).

A. Pignolet, G. Mohan Rao, and S. B. Krupanidhi, Rapid thermal processed thin films of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering », Thin Solid Films 261, 18 (1995).

A. Pignolet, G. Mohan Rao, and S. B. Krupanidhi, Rapid thermal processed thin films of Ta2O5, Thin Solid Films258, 230 (1995).

S.B. Krupanidhi, and A. Pignolet, Pulsed laser deposition of  PMN-PT relaxors thin films, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Integrated Ferroelectrics, Monterey, CA, 1994.

A. Pignolet, R. A. Roy, J. P. Doyle, and J. J. Cuomo, Model of lead loss in Pb(MgxNb1‑x)Oz ion beam sputtered thin films,  J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A12, 2840 (1994).

I. Taguchi, A. Pignolet, L. Wang, M. Proctor, F. Lévy, and P.E. Schmid, Raman scattering of lead zirconate titanate thin films prepared on silicon substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, J. Appl. Phys.74, 6625 (1993).

I. Taguchi, A. Pignolet, L. Wang, M. Proctor, F. Lévy, and P.E. Schmid, Raman scattering from PbTiO3 thin films prepared on silicon substrate by radio frequency sputtering and thermal treatment, J. Appl. Phys.73, 394 (1993).

A. Pignolet, L. Wang, P.E.  Schmid, J. Pavel, F. Lévy, Pyroelectricity in (Pb0.98Mn0.02)(Zr0.6Ti0.4)O3 sputtered thin films, Ferroelectrics128, 37 (1992): Proccedings of EMF‑7, Dijon, 1991.

A. Pignolet, P.E. Schmid, L. Wang, F. Lévy, “Structure and Characterization of sputtered thin films based on lead titanate. », Proceedings of the Materials Research Society  230, 291 (1992).

J. Krempaský, L. Wang, M. Proctor, A. Pignolet, F. Lévy, “Optical properties of PZT and PMZT sputtered thin films. », Solid State Commun. 78, 1039 (1991).

A. Pignolet, P.E. Schmid, L. Wang, F. Lévy, “Structure and electrical properties of sputtered lead titanate thin films. », J.  Phys.  D:  Appl. Phys.  24, 619 (1991).

L. Wang, A. Pignolet, F. Lévy,“Properties of Pb(ZrxT1‑x)O3  thin films prepared by r.f. magnetron sputtering and heat treatement. », Mat. Res. Bul. 25, 12 (1990).

Recent Proceedings

  • M. Azodi, C. Harnagea, V. Buscaglia, M.T. Buscaglia, P. Nanni, , F. Rosei,A. PignoletFerroelectricity in Bi4Ti3O12 nanorods, Proc IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics / International Symposium on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Nanoscale Phenomena in Polar Materials (ISAF PFM 2012), Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 24 – 27 2011.

Book chapters

Catalin Harnagea and Alain Pignolet, Probing local ferroelectricity using scanning probe microscopy: application to bismuth ferrite, published in New developments in advanced functional ceramics, Editor: L. Mitoseriu, Indian Series of Appl. Phys., Trivandrum, Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India, ISBN: 81-7895-248-3.

C. Harnagea and A. Pignolet, Piezoresponse scanning force microscopy, in Science, Technology and Education of Microscopy: An Overview, Editor: A. Méndez-Vilas, Formatex 2005, ISBN 84-609-6605-4.

C. Harnagea and A. Pignolet, Challenges in the analysis of the local piezoelectric response, published in: Nanoscale characterization of ferroelectric materials, Editors: A. Gruverman and M. Alexe, Springer-Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-540-20662-0.